Sleep Apnea

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Alcohol: May worsen sleep apnea, disrupt sleep structure, and increase daytime sleepiness (2)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • May modestly improve sleep apnea by itself, without weight loss, including AHI reduction, sleep efficiency, sleepiness (2)

SLEEP

  • Altered sleep position if it triggers sleep apnea. Avoid lying on the back, or in the supine position (2)

WEIGHT

  • Weight loss is advised for patients with sleep apnea who are overweight or obese (1, 2)
  • Effect: A 9-17% weight loss may decrease Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index by about 50% in people with sleep apnea (1)
  • May decrease daytime sleepiness (2)
  • Weight loss rarely causes total remission of symptoms (2)

References

1) https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/215/management-approach

2) https://www.uptodate.com/contents/obstructive-sleep-apnea-overview-of-management-in-adults


Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font