Colorectal Cancer

Lifestyle modifications


  • A high intake of total dietary fiber is associated with reduced colorectal mortality. For every 5g/d of increased dietary fiber intake, there was a 18% reduced risk of colorectal mortality (2)
  • Dietary calcium supplementation (1200mg) reduces polyp recurrent rate (1)
  • Vitamin B2 intake is inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer (1)
  • Omega 3 fatty acids at recommended levels is associated with reduced risk of colon cancer (1)
  • Low levels of vitamin D is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (1)
  • In general it is recommended that the nutrients should come from foods rather than supplements (1)
  • Moderate to high alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer compared to not drinking, by 21% and 52% (1)
  • Processed meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Red meat is “probably carcinogenic” (1)


  • Smoking cessation is recommended as smoking is a known risk factor for development of colorectal cancer (1)
  • Risk reduction is seen with early smoking cessation (1)






Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font