Cataract

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Alcohol is a risk factor for cataract (1)
  • Malnutrition is a risk factor for cataract (1)
  • A healthy diet (high Healthy Eating Index) seems to reduce the risk of cataract (2)
  • A diet rich in lutein and zeaxanthine is associated with reduced risk of cataract (2)
  • The incidense risk ratios for cataract development with various diets compared to high meat diet (>100g/day) (3):
    • Moderate meat eaters (50-99g/day): 0.96
    • Low meat (< 50g/day): 0,85
    • Pesco vegetarians: 0.79
    • Lacto ovo vegetarians: 0.70
    • Vegans: 0.60
  • Vegetarian diets are associated with 20% reduced risk of cataract (4)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cataract (1)

SMOKING

  • Smoking is a risk factor for cataract (1)
  • Some lense damage may be reversed if quitting smoking (1)

SUNLIGHT

  • Sunlight exposure increases the risk of cataract (1)

References

1) https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cataract-in-adults

2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2896219/

3) https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/93/5/1128/4597843

4) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212267220314283


Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font