Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Dietary intake of antioxidants, vitamin C and E, beta carotene, luteine, zeaxanthine, and zinc, may reduce the risk of developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Consider using the AREDS2 formulation (1)
  • A high intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced risk of AMD (1)
  • A combination of lutein, zeaxanthine and omega 3 fatty acids supplementation may reduce the risk of AMD progression (2)
  • Alcohol: Moderate and heavy alcohol intake may increase the risk of early AMD (4, 5)
  • Intake of fish or omega 3 is associated with reduced risk of development and progression of AMD (5, 6)
  • Meat intake is associated with increased risk of early AMD development (5)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • A high level of physical activity may reduce the risk of early stage AMD (3)

SMOKING

  • Smoking cessation is strongly recommended as smoking is a strong risk factor for AMD (1)

References

1) https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/554/management-approach

2) https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/20/4273

3) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0002939421005250

4) https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02713683.2021.1942070

5) https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1771-5

6) https://europepmc.org/article/med/35388706


Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font