Stroke

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • There is some evidence that a healthy diet such as the mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of stroke (1)
  • Emphasize: “Intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy  products, poultry, fish, legumes, nontropical vegetable oils, and nuts. Limit the intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red  meats. Calories from saturated fat should be limited to 5 to 6 percent  and calories from trans-fat should be reduced.” (1)
  • Sodium: Reduce intake to < 2.5g/day if blood pressure reduction is desired (1)
  • Alcohol: Avoid high intake (1)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • Regular physical activity such as brisk walking reduces the risk of stroke (1)
  • Physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of stroke (1)

SMOKING

  • Increases, in a dose response relation, the risk of particularly ischemic stroke and subarachnoidal bleeding (1)
  • Excess risk is eliminated 5 years after smoking cessation (1)

WEIGHT

  • Obesity increases the risk of ischemic stroke (1)
  • Weight loss have not shown to reduce stroke risk, but may help to control other risk factors for stroke, such as blood pressure, glucose levels and lipid level (1)

References

1) https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-secondary-prevention-of-ischemic-stroke


Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font