Heart Failure

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Avoid excessive sodium intake (< 5g/day) (1)
  • Avoid large volumes of fluid intake (2)
  • Avoid excessive alcohol intake (2)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • Regular physical activity (2)
  • Improves exercise tolerance and capacity, health related QOL, and reduces hospitalization (2)
  • High intensity interval training improves peak oxygen consumption, VO2 (2)
  • Supervised exercise rehabilitation program is recommended for people who are frail, and have more severe disease (2)

SMOKING

  • Smoking cessation is recommended (2)

WEIGHT

  • Maintain a normal weight (2)

PREVENTION

  • Regular physical activity (2)
  • Smoking cessation (2)
  • Maintain a normal weight (2)
  • Avoid excessive alcohol intake (2)
  • A healthy diet (2)

Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font