Dyslipidemia

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Limit intake of saturated fat to < 7% of daily calories (1)
  • Limit intake of trans fat to < 1% (1)
  • Limit intake of dietary cholesterol to < 300mg / day (1)
  • Increase the intake of fiber, complex carbohydrates and unsaturated fats (1)
  • Soy supplementation reduces LDL-C (1)
  • Mediterranean diet and low fat diets may reduce LDL-C up to 19 – 30% (1)
  • Plant stanols/sterols (1)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia lifestyle related risk factors: Excessive alcohol intake, high intake of saturated fats, sugar, high glycemic index foods (2)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia: Avoid alcohol, adopt to a low fat diet, avoid simple carbohydrates, weight loss
  • Lacto-ovo vegetarian diet: – 10-15% LDL reduction (3)
  • Vegan diet: – 15-25% LDL reduction (3)
  • Combination diet (vegetarian diets with additional fiber, soy and nuts): – 20-35% LDL reduction (3)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • Regular aerob physical activity (1)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia lifestyle factors: Sedentary lifestyle (2)

WEIGHT

  • Weight reduction if obese (1)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia lifestyle factors: Obesity (2)

SMOKING

  • Smoking cessation is recommended (1)

Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font