Breast cancer

Lifestyle modifications

Prevention

  • Alcohol, even low intake, increases the risk of breast cancer. Avoid or limit alcohol intake to reduce risk (1, 2). Possible mechanisms include alcohol induced changes in estrogen and other hormones that may increase the risk of breast cancer. In addition alcohol is a known carcinogen (2)
  • Regular physical activity (1, 2) and particularly vigorous activity reduces the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer (2)
  • Maintain a healthy weight (1, 2). Overweight causes increased inflammation and insulin levels which may cause cancerous changes in cells, or stimulate cell growth (2)
  • Breast feeding your baby reduces the risk of breast cancer through reducing the exposure to menstrual cycles. In addition, shedding of tissue during and after lactation reduces the risk of breast cancer (1, 2)
  • Limited evidence shows that intake of non-starchy vegetables may reduce risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer (3)
  • Limited evidence shows that intake of foods with carotenoids may reduce risk of (unspecified) breast cancer (3)
  • Limited evidence shows that intake of dairy, and also high intake of calcium may reduce the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer (3)

NUTRITION

  • Some evidence indicate that people consuming a low fat diet have reduced risk of death after being diagnosed with breast cancer (1)

References

1) https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/716/prevention

2) https://www.aicr.org/cancer-survival/cancer/breast-cancer/

3) https://www.aicr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/breast-cancer-report-2017.pdf


Resources

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Figure: Evidence pyramid

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD font

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE font

​Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in PLAIN font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE font